Biomass generated in Brazil can increase the demand for gas fuel.
“About to 60 % of MSW produced in Brazil, are rich in organic matter, offering significant opportunities for energy generation and composting.”
For its extension and populational volume, Brazil has huge potential for biofuel production, moreover, a collection of urban waste logistics which could mitigate environmental impacts of open landfills, is an issue that has been discussed for years national and internationally. Focusing on this, the National Sanitation Information System ( NSIS ) 2005 gathered all cities with more than 3 million citizens, and 2 % of the cities with less than 30,000 with a predominant presence of landfills to diagnose the solid waste management (SWM ) .
According to a study published by the Brazilian Association of Public Cleaning and Special Waste (Abrelpe) , “Waste Management in Brazil: an overview”, in 2007 the total municipal solid waste collected in Brazil was 164,774 tons per day, when the total produced was 173,524 tons per day, indicating that the collection in generally is efficient, even so, the disposal of MSW is inadequate, especially in cities where landfills are prevalent .
There is no control of percolated liquid (slurry ) in places like this, which can lead to contamination of soil and groundwater, and there are still problems of zoonoses, because proliferation of pests is also not controlled, and the loss of methane gas generated by fermentation of organic waste.
About 60% of MSW produced in Brazil, are rich in organic matter, offering significant opportunities for energy generation and composting, replacing the mechanism widely adopted, landfills. In developed countries this policy is already applied, because the EU Landfill Directive already had recommended a drastic reduction of biodegradable waste in landfills by the year 2006, in order to completely eradicate the grounding of these materials .
Considering the MSW production values presented, Brazil would have 82 billion tons per day of organic matter and considering the possibility that anaerobic fermentation can generate 350-500 m3 of methane gas/ton, that could complement the demand for fuel gas in the country. Currently our main source is natural gas, with the dependence on external suppliers, which it is also a non-renewable resource.
We can also be consider, direct incineration of organic waste, which would produce a minimum of 0.4 MW / ton counting the 82 billion tons per day , generating an output of 1.36 GW. Thus, the direct incineration becomes more efficient mechanism but presents the challenge of removing persistent organic pollutants ( POPs), subject to the Stockholm Convention. This removal is technically possible with the implementation of effective treatment of gases, with the possibility of catalytic conversion of pollutants.
Source: Ministry of Environment. Site:mma.gov.br